Messenger In a recent post at Cogito on the problem of cultural and political Manichaeism, I mentioned the apocalyptic manifesto of Norwegian terrorist Anders Breivik. Breivik was convicted of 77 murders that he perpetrated in July Overall, my post was well-received, but one response via Twitter was to the effect that cultural Marxism is a real phenomenon, with evidence for it all around us.
Particular accusations of conspiracy vary widely in their plausibility, but some common standards for assessing their likely truth value may be applied in each case: Occam's razor - does the alternative story explain more of the evidence than the mainstream story, or is it just a more complicated and therefore less useful explanation of the same evidence?
Logic - Do the proofs offered follow the rules of logicor do they employ fallacies of logic? Methodology - are the proofs offered for the argument well constructed, i. Is there any clear standard to determine what evidence would prove or disprove the theory?
Whistleblowers - how many people — and what kind — have to be loyal conspirators? Falsifiability - Is it possible to demonstrate that specific claims of the theory are false, or are they "unfalsifiable"?
Noam Chomskyan academic critical of the United States establishmentcontrasts conspiracy theory as more or less the opposite of institutional analysiswhich focuses mostly on the public, long-term behaviour of publicly known institutions, as recorded in, e.
The term "conspiracy theory" is considered by different observers to be a neutral description for a conspiracy claim, a pejorative term used to dismiss such a claim without examination, and a term that can be positively embraced by proponents of such a claim.
The term may be used by some for arguments they might not wholly believe but consider radical and exciting. The most widely accepted sense of the term is that which popular culture and academic usage share, certainly having negative implications for a narrative's probable truth value. Conspiracy theorists on the internet are often dismissed as a "fringe" group, but evidence suggests that a broad cross section of Americans today -- traversing ethnic, gender, education, occupation, and other divides -- gives credence to at least some conspiracy theories.
The legitimacy of each such usage will therefore be a matter of some controversy. Conspiracy Phobia On The Left", states, "It is an either-or world for those on the Left who harbor an aversion for any kind of conspiracy investigation: Certain proponents of conspiracy claims and their supporters argue that the term is entirely illegitimate, and should be considered just as politically manipulative as the Soviet practice of treating political dissidents as clinically insane.
But critics of this view claim that the argument bears little weight and that the claim itself serves to expose the paranoia common with conspiracy theorists. A similar complication occurs for terms such as UFOwhich literally means "unidentified flying object" but connotes alien spacecrafta concept also associated with some conspiracy theories, and thus possessing a certain social stigma.
Michael Parenti gives an example of the use of the term which underscores the conflict in its use. He states, "In most of its operations, the CIA is by definition a conspiracy, using covert actions and secret plans, many of which are of the most unsavory kind.
What are covert operations if not conspiracies? At the same time, the CIA is an institution, a structural part of the national security state. In sum, the agency is an institutionalized conspiracy. For example, certain activities of the House Un-American Activities Committee may be considered to have been an official attempt to promote a conspiracy theory, yet its claims are seldom referred to as such.
In popular usage, this term is often used to refer to unfounded or weakly-based speculation, leading to the idea that "It's not a conspiracy theory if it's actually true". The central belief of every moron is that he is the victim of a mysterious conspiracy against his common rights and true deserts.
He ascribes all his failure to get on in the world, all of his congenital incapacity and damfoolishness, to the machinations of werewolves assembled in Wall Street, or some other such den of infamy.
Kennedy eventually provoked an unprecedented public response directed against the official version of the case as expounded in the Report of the Warren Commission. Psychologists believe that the search for meaning is common in conspiracism and the development of conspiracy theories, and may be powerful enough alone to lead to the first formulating of the idea.
Once cognized, confirmation bias and avoidance of cognitive dissonance may reinforce the belief. In a context where a conspiracy theory has become popular within a social group, communal reinforcement may equally play a part.
Some research carried out at the University of KentUK suggests people may be influenced by conspiracy theories without being aware that their attitudes have changed.There is no topical restriction, although we especially encourage paper proposals on North American poetry, animal studies, comic studies, food studies, as well as on war and illness in American literature, culture, history and politics.
American Popular Culture Daniel Villalobos SOC/ University of Phoenix June 29, Roger Fike American Popular Culture There is not a single definition that will describe culture since it evolves and goes for the same as beauty. Without a doubt, there is no answer to the definition of beauty, yet beauty is heavily involved and, associated in today’s media.
He seems generally correct in his description of Western Marxism’s departure from Soviet Marxism, with an emphasis on cultural critique and a different set of attitudes to culture itself.
Globalisation Overview Globalization (or globalisation) is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture. Put in simple terms, globalization refers to processes that increase world-wide exchanges of national and cultural resources.
The point is not an all or nothing acceptance or rejection of Marxism, but rather that history in the periphery happens in an impure way, and that no description of our predicaments can hold true if we seek an active avoidance of such impurity.
Marxism and war.
Étienne balibar. War for Marxism is not exactly a concept, but it is certainly a problem.*While Marxism could not invent a concept of war, it could re-create it, so to speak – that is, introduce the question of war into its own problematic, and produce a Marxist critique of war, or a critical theory of warfare, war situations and processes, with a completely original content.